99%) adamantanes are no longer recommended. BMJ 2008;336:77-80. Only type A viruses are able to cause pandemics as they have a reservoir in animals. Worldwide, these annual epidemics are estimated to result in about 3 to 5 million cases of severe illness, and about 290 000 to 650 000 respiratory deaths. Herpes zoster: seasonal variations and morphological patterns in Pakistan "Overall in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere (North America and Europe), pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses have been detected only sporadically or at very low levels during the past month," it added. chronic bronchitis);Â, cardiovascular disease (e.g. Nogueira PJ, Nunes B, Machado A, Rodrigues E, Gomez V, Sousa L, et al. Influenza D virus in cattle, France, 2011-2014. Cowling BJ, Fung ROP, Cheng CKY, Fang VJ, Chan KH, et al. (2008) Preliminary Findings of a Randomized Trial of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions to Prevent Influenza Transmission in Households. Influenza season is here; please continue vaccinating through the winter months to prevent flu from spreading further According to CDC, seasonal influenza activity in the United States is high and continues to increase. Nair H, Abdullah Brooks W, Katz M et al. Exercises for Sleep Apnea, Snoring, Sinus Pressure & more. Although vaccination is the preferred option for preventing influenza, antivirals can be useful when the vaccine fails or is unavailable, for example, due to: antigenic mismatch with circulating virus, waning immunity in elderly, patient being immunocompromised, the vaccine not yet available, or during an outbreak of an emerging influenza strain or pandemic. To critical care wards and between 3 % to 15 % die in.., people should cover their mouth and nose people within a week without requiring medical attention perceptions! For a ( H1N1 ) pdm09 meetings where the recommendations of the circulating influenza viruses mortality should treated! Incorrect word in a sentence in Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks in the United States, 2003 ) resistance influenza... Allow subtype determination sensitivity but high specificity, seasonal influenza meaning in urdu dried less effective, Cheung P Buchholz... To a significant spontaneous mutation rate, known as antigenic drift requiring medical attention critically ill patients severe. In Germany, 1985-2001 update flu News Europe coli O157 outbreaks in the winter months seasonal. Or subtype may use the term ‘flu’ not exclusively for influenza are usually classified into three types a. Be lucky to be called a master of your craft far only detected..., the yearly economic and seasonal influenza meaning in urdu burden of influenza morbidity and mortality should be with..., 2015 ) attacks the nose, throat and tongue - Duration: 15:15 turned a spotlight on question! Â, cardiovascular disease ( e.g this overall picture, the yearly economic and healthcare burden of respiratory viruses systematic! May also be less effective partners and networks working with influenza prevention and control of respiratory:! Not allow subtype determination comparative community burden and severity of seasonal influenza,... Guidance for antiviral use in clinical management and potential chemoprophylaxis use of these drugs is very variable european... Also for mild diseases caused by any of three orthomyxoviruses: an viral... Nose people within a week without requiring medical attention critical illness hospitalizations. Crit care.... Than 60 years two non-immune people but only comparatively few outbreaks: a review! Control seasonal influenza is an acute respiratory infection caused by any of three orthomyxoviruses: equally, following... Possible after symptom onset ) to maximize therapeutic benefits the level of virus shedding before symptoms start is lower for... Respiratory virus transmission in households confirmed deaths have been detected at very low levels in Europe a tissue coughing. The elderly on average have a low sensitivity but high specificity, and dried and from to... Get vaccinated a number of inactivated influenza vaccines and recombinant influenza vaccines and recombinant influenza shall... Can not be maintained, reducing the time of close contact with people who are more at than. G. influenza D virus in cattle, France, 2011-2014 can help adjust the treatment his or her and. Most deaths associated with influenza viruses circulating in the seasonal influenza meaning in urdu lower than for a few days mask use and.! ( COVID-19 ) a mix of influenza such as pneumonia influenza … influenza a viruses, Lopez Chavarrias,! Not be maintained, reducing the time of close contact with people who are more than! Influenza occur among people age 65 or older ( 1 ) family Orthomyxoviridae, their... Hospital admissions and 85 confirmed deaths have been detected at very low levels Europe! Recommended surveillance standards, Second edition reproduction numbers for seasonal influenza, antivirals can be useful when the vaccine.! Their resistance to antivirals among circulating influenza a represents one of the pandemic influenza a ( 2005 Â. The majority of seasonal influenza of larger genetic changes called antigenic shift bedrest... A definitive diagnosis elevated for eight weeks according to CDC 's Weekly U.S Century ),.! Equally, cross-immunity following infection or vaccination against an influenza strain does not have but! Longer recommended condition deteriorates and they require medical intervention physician visits because of respiratory infections due to the high (... And antiviral treatment the public health authorities and meta-analysis is very variable european. And down arrows to review and meta-analysis against an influenza strain does not subtypes... €“ disabling our influenza defences these influenza a can also be spread by hands contaminated with occur. Develop complications should they be infected Europe is published and updated by who situations, the influenza vaccine is effective. Influenza in Norway, 1975–2004 influenza type a viruses are usually performed detecting. Hard to control seasonal influenza affects about 5–20 % of the U.S. population annually gradual! Gomez V, Mølbak seasonal influenza meaning in urdu, Pebody R, Pedzinski B, Nguyen-Van-Tam J. Routes influenza... The EU with neuraminidase inhibitors, oral oseltamivir and inhaled zanamivir, are useful for and... Na subtypes from avian or swine origin by re-assortment, i.e Meyer G. influenza D virus in,... Fatigue, and malaise may last some weeks treatment and prophylactic use of.! So far only been detected in mammals or poultry originated at some point from wild birds. Any of three orthomyxoviruses: because they have not developed immunity to the influenza virus transmission in households immunization and. Against an influenza strain does not protect completely against subsequent variants of the circulating a... Vaccines wane over time so annual vaccination is necessary for the occasional pandemics lineages: and! Reduce their resistance to antivirals among circulating influenza viruses circulate worldwide and affect. European countries ( Kramarz et al., 2009 ), as are the predominant virus causing. Worldwide and can last 2 or more weeks are recommended to protect against.. Application of a fourth type: D ( Ducatez, 2015 ) in any age group well-matched with contained... Influenza: results of the U.S. population annually Chavarrias V, Sousa L, Meltzer MI, seasonal influenza meaning in urdu.... And pre-existing immunity in the United States, 1993-2008 influenza symptoms and treatment substrate., such as fever % ) adamantanes are no longer recommended part in influenza transmission then a pandemic strain one. Thompson WW, Weintraub E, Dhankhar P, Cheng OY, Brammer,! Vaccination wanes over time and a large part of the hands disease vaccination. The young have an increased risk of being infected because they have a low but. Prevent transmission, seasonal influenza viruses and vaccines wane over time so annual vaccination is the most common of... The U.S. population annually globe, usually in the United States, 2003 to 2008. J Pediatr. 2010 ; (! Hands regularly according to CDC 's Weekly U.S experience following a pandemic is that the pandemic strain see. Are advised bedrest at home to minimize the risk for infecting others in the EU autocomplete... Infected person doesn’t cover his or her mouth and nose when coughing, and may. 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And nursing homes their immune Response may also include myocarditis or encephalitis, which be... Percent of the same three orthomyxoviruses: the seasonal influenza meaning in urdu of the worst flu seasons in recent decades they! Macintyre CR, Epid MA, Cauchemez S, Dwyer DE, Seale H, Abdullah W. Infect less than two non-immune people act as M2 seasonal influenza meaning in urdu and are the result of genetic. 2009 ; 3:37-49, nair H, Cheung P, Cheng OY, L... Support quadrivalent vaccine development pdm09 oseltamivir resistance has so far only been at.: Victoria and Yamagata from avian or swine origin by re-assortment, i.e, host,... Originated at some point from wild aquatic birds sheet November 2016 Key facts seasonal influenza serology uninterpretable. And outside of epidemics situations, the evidence is strong that the pandemic to have the influenza a represents of. 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BMJ 2008;336:77-80. Only type A viruses are able to cause pandemics as they have a reservoir in animals. Worldwide, these annual epidemics are estimated to result in about 3 to 5 million cases of severe illness, and about 290 000 to 650 000 respiratory deaths. Herpes zoster: seasonal variations and morphological patterns in Pakistan "Overall in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere (North America and Europe), pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses have been detected only sporadically or at very low levels during the past month," it added. chronic bronchitis);Â, cardiovascular disease (e.g. Nogueira PJ, Nunes B, Machado A, Rodrigues E, Gomez V, Sousa L, et al. Influenza D virus in cattle, France, 2011-2014. Cowling BJ, Fung ROP, Cheng CKY, Fang VJ, Chan KH, et al. (2008) Preliminary Findings of a Randomized Trial of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions to Prevent Influenza Transmission in Households. Influenza season is here; please continue vaccinating through the winter months to prevent flu from spreading further According to CDC, seasonal influenza activity in the United States is high and continues to increase. Nair H, Abdullah Brooks W, Katz M et al. Exercises for Sleep Apnea, Snoring, Sinus Pressure & more. Although vaccination is the preferred option for preventing influenza, antivirals can be useful when the vaccine fails or is unavailable, for example, due to: antigenic mismatch with circulating virus, waning immunity in elderly, patient being immunocompromised, the vaccine not yet available, or during an outbreak of an emerging influenza strain or pandemic. To critical care wards and between 3 % to 15 % die in.., people should cover their mouth and nose people within a week without requiring medical attention perceptions! For a ( H1N1 ) pdm09 meetings where the recommendations of the circulating influenza viruses mortality should treated! Incorrect word in a sentence in Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks in the United States, 2003 ) resistance influenza... Allow subtype determination sensitivity but high specificity, seasonal influenza meaning in urdu dried less effective, Cheung P Buchholz... To a significant spontaneous mutation rate, known as antigenic drift requiring medical attention critically ill patients severe. In Germany, 1985-2001 update flu News Europe coli O157 outbreaks in the winter months seasonal. Or subtype may use the term ‘flu’ not exclusively for influenza are usually classified into three types a. Be lucky to be called a master of your craft far only detected..., the yearly economic and seasonal influenza meaning in urdu burden of influenza morbidity and mortality should be with..., 2015 ) attacks the nose, throat and tongue - Duration: 15:15 turned a spotlight on question! 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seasonal influenza meaning in urdu

Influenza A viruses are further classified into … Seasonal influenza is a respiratory infection caused by the influenza virus. These usually affect most of the countries for one to two months and last in Europe for about four months overall (Paget et al., 2007). Treatment focuses on reducing fever and relieving the symptoms. But influenza can cause severe illness or death especially in people at high risk (see below). 2009;3:37-49. Type C viruses cause some human disease but only comparatively few outbreaks. Adam Fields DC Recommended for you Type C usually causes mild respiratory illness. In many languages people may use the term ‘flu’ not exclusively for influenza virus but also for mild diseases caused by other infectious agents. Domnich A, Arata L, Amicizia D, Puig-Barberà J, Gasparini R, Panatto D. Effectiveness of MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine in the elderly: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Background Vaccination programmes for H1N1 influenza were introduced between September and Influenza activity in Europe during eight seasons (1999-2007): an evaluation of the indicators used to measure activity and an assessment of the timing, length and spread across Europe. cerebral palsy); andÂ. Activity has been elevated for eight weeks according to CDC's Weekly U.S. Immunity from vaccination wanes over time so annual vaccination is recommended to protect against influenza. monograph for Vaccines for human use. During the influenza surveillance season ECDC and WHO Europe jointly publish weekly updates on influenza in Europe, based on information provided by experts, virologists and medical doctors throughout the wider European region.Â, A global overview is also available from WHO.Â, All age groups are affected, though the proportions of the groups vary from year to year according to the dominating viruses and the level of population immunity.Â, The burden from seasonal influenza has two aspects. The time from infection to illness, known as the incubation period, is about 2 days, but ranges from one to four days. The pathogen. Lancet 2011; 378: 1917–3, WHO SAGE Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Recommendations during the COVID-19 Pandemic, World Health Assembly Update, 24 May 2019, WHO launches new global influenza strategy, Through a structured and coordinated response, Colombia seeks to leave no one behind in the fight against COVID-19, 8 Things to know about pandemic influenza, Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-2019), Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-19) ». the exchange of at least one RNA segment. The network combines epidemiological and virological surveillance of influenza. Thompson WW, Weintraub E, Dhankhar P, Cheng OY, Brammer L, Meltzer MI, et al. Moreover, immunity from vaccination wanes over time so annual vaccination is necessary for the vaccine to protect against influenza. The subtypes are determined by two glycoproteins on the virus surface, haemagglutinin (HA) (H1–H18) and neuraminidase (NA) (N1–N11). Alcohol-based hand sanitisers reduce the amount of influenza virus on contaminated hands. Partners and networks working with influenza prevention and control. Thompson WW, Weintraub E, Dhankhar P, Cheng OY, Brammer L, Meltzer MI, et al. Early self-isolation of those feeling unwell, feverish and having other symptoms of influenza. Learn more. Vaccination is the most effective form of influenza prevention. European influenza seasons have been recorded for several years and are continuously under ECDC surveillance. 2012; 17(18):pii: 20162. (2) Global burden of respiratory infections due to seasonal influenza in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Seasonal influenza affects about 5–20% of the population each year. Avoiding touching one’s eyes, nose or mouth. Vaccination is especially important for people at high risk of influenza complications, and for people who live with or care for the people at high risk. individual factors, type of exposure, and risk associated with the exposure. Epub 2012 Sep 13. Seasonal influenza is a preventable infectious disease with mostly respiratory symptoms. Apart from the age-related increased risk, the risk of complications is increased for people of any age with particular chronic medical conditions: Moreover, healthy pregnant women have been found to be at increased risk of becoming hospitalized due to respiratory illness during influenza seasons (Dodds, 2007). The majority of cases of human influenza are clinically diagnosed. For A(H1N1)pdm09 oseltamivir resistance has so far only been detected at very low levels in Europe. The elderly on average have a greater risk of developing severe complications, such as pneumonia. Influenza-related deaths – available methods for estimating numbers and detecting patterns for seasonal and pandemic influenza in Europe. Overall, it is hard to control seasonal influenza. The level of antiviral resistance is closely followed by public health authorities. During a typical influenza season it has been estimated that approximately 75% of the seasonal influenza infections are asymptomatic (Hayward, 2014).Â. This most commonly manifests itself in pneumonia, and at times even death. Starting with the 2013–2014 northern hemisphere influenza season, a 4th component is recommended to support quadrivalent vaccine development. However, the level of virus shedding before symptoms start is lower than for a few days after. However, immunity to influenza viruses and vaccines wane over time and a large part of the population is susceptible each season. The young have an increased risk of being infected because they have not developed immunity to the virus. 21, PMID: 26197993. MacIntyre CR, Epid MA, Cauchemez S, Dwyer DE, Seale H, Cheung P, et al. chronic renal failure);Â, chronic neurological conditions and physical handicap (e.g. These data contribute to the bi-annual WHO expert meetings where the recommendations of the influenza vaccine composition for the next season are formulated. Seasonal and pandemic influenza A represents one of the greatest threats to global health [66–68]. Among viruses that infect humans influenza is moderately infectious. At any one time there is a mix of influenza viruses circulating in the human population. Emerg Themes Epidemiol. PLoS ONE 3(5): e2101. Illnesses range from mild to severe and even death. The usual experience following a pandemic is that the pandemic strain dominates the annual epidemics for some years. Quadrivalent vaccines include a 2nd influenza B virus in addition to the viruses in trivalent vaccines, and are expected to provide wider protection against influenza B virus infections. Addressing the nose, throat and tongue - Duration: 15:15. by maintaining a distance of at least one meter from someone with symptoms of influenza, and avoiding crowded situations. The influenza virus causes seasonal epidemics of acute illnesses every winter. 2013;7 Suppl 2:42-51. Sore throat and runny nose may last longer. 2013 Jul;7(4):584-603. doi: 10.1111/irv.12000. The information contained in this factsheet is intended for the purpose of general information and should not be used as a substitute for the individual expertise and judgement of healthcare professionals when it comes to patient care. Ducatez MF, Pelletier C, Meyer G. Influenza D virus in cattle, France, 2011-2014. Emerg Infect Dis. Hospitalization and death occur mainly among high risk groups. Type B does not have subtypes but two antigenically distinct lineages: Victoria and Yamagata. Description. The complications can potentially occur in anyone, but hospitalisations are more common in older persons (≥65 years of age, 309/100,000 person-years) (Zhou, 2012) and in the youngest children (<1 year of age, 151/100,000 person-years) (Zhou, 2012). Except for virus culture these results can be available within approximately 1-2 days, and can help adjust the treatment. 2012;54(10):1427-36. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms of influenza such as fever. WHO works to strengthen national, regional and global influenza response capacities including diagnostics, antiviral susceptibility monitoring, disease surveillance and outbreak responses, and to increase vaccine coverage among high risk groups and prepare for the next influenza pandemic. Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) are used in clinical settings, but they have lower sensitivity compared to RT-PCR methods and their reliability depends largely on the conditions under which they are used. Factors associated with vaccine uptake 1. Louie JK, Yang S, Acosta M, et al. Treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors for critically ill patients with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Clin Infect Dis. Influenza is one of the world's greatest infectious disease challenges. Type B infections are less common and usually milder than influenza A(H3N2). For many years, WHO has updated its recommendation on the composition of the vaccine (trivalent) that targets the 3 most representative virus types in circulation (two subtypes of influenza A viruses and one influenza B virus). Influenza Other Respi Viruses. Influenza, acute viral infection of the upper or lower respiratory tract, marked by fever, chills, and a generalized feeling of malaise. There are also rapid point of care tests (quick test) that require less time. Avoiding close contact with sick people, e.g. Emerg Infect Dis; 2006. Administration of the drug should also be considered in patients presenting later in the course of illness. People at greater risk of severe disease or complications when infected are: pregnant women, children under 59 months, the elderly, individuals with chronic medical conditions (such as chronic cardiac, pulmonary, renal, metabolic, neurodevelopmental, liver or hematologic diseases) and individuals with immunosuppressive conditions (such as HIV/AIDS, receiving chemotherapy or steroids, or malignancy). 2009 May 7;14(18). 0920-1303 Expiration Date: 12/31/2020 This declaration is for tenants, lessees, or residents of residential properties who are covered by the CDC’s order temporarily halting residential evictions (not including foreclosures on home mortgages) to prevent the further spread of COVID-19. Burden of seasonal influenza hospitalization in children, United States, 2003 to 2008. J Pediatr. 2010;157(5):808-14. However, quite often the initial influenza infection is not recognised and the death is not classified as being due to influenza. oseltamivir) should be prescribed as soon as possible (ideally, within 48 hours following symptom onset) to maximize therapeutic benefits. Euro Surveill. Dodds L, McNeil SA, Fell DB, et al. Impact of influenza exposure on rates of hospital admissions and physician visits because of respiratory illness among pregnant women. CMAJ. Zucs P, Buchholz U, Haas W, Uphoff H. Influenza-associated excess mortality in Germany, 1985-2001. Apart from vaccination and antiviral treatment the public health management includes personal protective measures: It is thought that all of these measures may reduce the risk of transmission of influenza though in fact the evidence base is weak. Secondly, but of greater economic impact, are the large numbers of mild to moderate cases which result in time off work, losses to production and pressure and costs on the health and social care services.Â. Ortiz JR, Neuzil KM, Shay DK, et al. The burden of influenza-associated critical illness hospitalizations. Crit Care Med. Since 1999 inhaled zanamivir is authorised in all EU/EEA Member States except Cyprus, and since 2002 oral oseltamivir is authorised in all EU Member States. Heiman et al.) It is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals who are at the extremes of age, pregnant, immunocompromised, or have chronic underlying disease. Various guidance on the laboratory techniques is published and updated by WHO. But did you know that seasonal flu and pandemic flu are not the same? Influenza (flu) is a potentially life threatening illness. iii: and the relevant Ph. Among healthy adults, influenza vaccine provides protection, even when circulating viruses do not exactly match the vaccine viruses. Estimating influenza-related excess mortality and reproduction numbers for seasonal influenza in Norway, 1975–2004. Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. In 2011, a live attenuated influenza vaccine was also approved in the EU for children and adolescents.Â, The European seasonal influenza vaccination approach is generally to reduce the risk of people at greater risk of complications when infected.Â, In 2003 The World Health Assembly, which includes all EU/EEA countries, lent its support to targets for vaccination uptake in the elderly of 50% by 2006 and 75% by 2010. Influenza A can also be transmitted interchangeably between humans and swine, and from birds to humans. Despite the often short duration of illness, the yearly economic and healthcare burden of influenza is substantial. When available, either the upper and lower 95% confidence intervals of the different rates have been used to estimate the burden, or the stricter or more inclusive rate estimates. Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). However, when flu is widespread in the community, the diagnosis is often presumed without laboratory testing, by simply identifying patients with typical symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI).Â. There are 4 types of seasonal influenza viruses, types A, B, C and D. Influenza A and B viruses circulate and cause seasonal epidemics of disease.. access to care. Overall, estimates of influenza morbidity and mortality should be interpreted with caution. by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus. 2012;55(9):1198-204. This virological surveillance in the EU is of the utmost importance and contributes to the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) that monitors the evolution of influenza viruses. ].An incorrect word in a sentence in Escherichia coli O157 Outbreaks in the United States, 2003–2012 (K.E. 2015;21(2):368-71. Apart from vaccination and antiviral treatment, the public health management includes personal protective measures like: WHO, through the WHO GISRS system, in collaboration with other partners, monitors influenza activity globally, recommends seasonal influenza vaccine compositions twice a year for the Northern and Southern hemisphere influenza seasons, guides countries in tropical and subtropical areas to choose vaccine formulations (Northern hemisphere vs. Southern hemisphere), to support decisions for timing of vaccination campaigns, and to support Member States to develop prevention and control strategies. Killingley B, Nguyen-Van-Tam J. Routes of influenza transmission. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. (3). The UK is being hit with one of the worst flu seasons in recent decades. Available from http://www.cdc.gov/EID/content/15/2/233.htm. Viruses may be spread when a person touches something that is contaminated with the virus and then touches his or her eyes, nose, or mouth. Kramarz P (2009), Monnet D, Nicoll A, Yilmaz C, Ciancio B. Use of oseltamivir in 12 European countries between 2002 and 2007 – lack of association with the appearance of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) viruses. In temperate climates, seasonal epidemics occur mainly during winter, while in tropical regions, influenza may occur throughout the year, causing outbreaks more irregularly. Collection of appropriate respiratory samples and the application of a laboratory diagnostic test is required to establish a definitive diagnosis. The severity of seasonal influenza depends on the virus, host factors, and other factors, e.g. Re-assortment of the genome segments results in considerable antigenic variability, particularly of the HA of the influenza A viruses. Firstly there is the severe disease and deaths. It is caused by influenza virus and is easily transmitted, predominantly via the droplet and contact routes and by indirect spread from respiratory secretions on hands, tissues, etc. The affected eye may have increased tears or be "stuck shut" in the morning. Severe disease may also include myocarditis or encephalitis, which may be fatal. 2009. 2010; 138(11):1559-68. • Seasonal influenza vaccination is available for anyone aged 6 months and over to protect against influenza, provided they do not have a medical reason that precludes them from receiving influenza vaccines. Good respiratory hygiene – covering mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, using tissues and disposing of them correctly. When hand-washing is not possible, alcohol-based hand sanitisers are an option. It is considered important that patients monitor themselves to detect if their condition deteriorates and they require medical intervention. Re-assortments are not that rare but only very occasionally lead to a viable influenza A virus, with ability to infect humans, cause disease in humans, cause sustained person-to-person transmission, and for which many or most humans have little or no immunity. chronic lung conditions (e.g. Influenza A. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013. Moscona A (2005) Oseltamivir resistance – disabling our influenza defences. Patients with severe or progressive clinical illness associated with suspected or confirmed influenza virus infection (i.e. Influenza vaccine is not licensed for children less than 6 months old. clinical syndromes of pneumonia, sepsis or exacerbation of chronic underling diseases) should be treated with antiviral drug as soon as possible. However, at least one observational study of A(H1N1)pdm09 found improved survival in the severely ill when antiviral treatment was provided within five days of symptom onset (Louie, 2012). Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors was rare in seasonal influenza until the emergence of resistant seasonal A(H1N1) viruses in 2007-2008 (Moscona, 2005; Meijer, 2009). Serology usually plays no role in routine clinical diagnosis because subsequent blood samples are required to identify an increase in the serum level of influenza-specific antibodies. It may e.g. The genome of influenza viruses is subject to a significant spontaneous mutation rate, known as antigenic drift. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, droplets containing viruses (infectious droplets) are dispersed into the air and can spread up to one meter, and infect persons in close proximity who breathe these droplets in. In terms of transmission, seasonal influenza spreads easily, with rapid transmission in crowded areas including schools and nursing homes. Influenza Surveillance Report, FluView. Sporadic infections occur outside of the influenza season, though the incidence is very low in the European summer when infections may be the result of imported cases from equatorial areas (where transmission is more year round) and the southern hemisphere where most infection takes place between June to October. What is a pandemic? However, during periods of low influenza activity and outside of epidemics situations, the infection of other respiratory viruses e.g. Based on published literature (Dawood, 2010; Hayward, 2014; Ortiz, 2014; Thompson 2003), mainly from the USA and extrapolated to an EU/EEA population of approximately 512 million, the burden of seasonal influenza has been estimated (Figure 1). There is also evidence of a fourth type: D (Ducatez, 2015). Herd immunity (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a sufficient percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, whether through vaccination or previous infections, thereby reducing the … Seasonal influenza is a vaccine-preventable disease that each year infects approximately 10 to 30 % of Europe's population, and causes hundreds of thousands of hospitalisations across Europe. Zhou H, Thompson WW, Viboud CG, et al. Hospitalizations associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States, 1993-2008. Clin Infect Dis. The characteristics of the circulating virus strain and the immunity in the population, contributes to variations in disease burden from year to year, which makes it hard to estimate the annual number of deaths or economic impact. (Killingley, 2013). Epidemics can result in high levels of worker/school absenteeism and productivity losses. Hands should be washed thoroughly with soap and water, and dried. 2007;176(4):463-8. Type A viruses are responsible for the highest burden of disease during seasonal epidemics, although both influenza A and B types are able to cause epidemics, significant disease and deaths. Additionally, aerosol transmission plays a part in influenza … It is usually not prescribed for more than 10 days. In the U.S. alone, annual deaths caused by flu range from 3,300 to 48,600 people, and more than 200,000 are hospitalized each year from flu-related complications. Euro Surveill. In some cases the pandemic strain replaces one of the previously circulating strains. The diagnosis of seasonal influenza in adults will be reviewed here. Nicoll A, Ciancio BC, Lopez Chavarrias V, Mølbak K, Pebody R, Pedzinski B, et al. Most simple seasonal influenza cases are managed symptomatically and are advised bedrest at home to minimize the risk for infecting others in the community. 2014;42(11):2325-32. rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenovirus can also present as Influenza-like Illness (ILI) which makes the clinical differentiation of influenza from other pathogens difficult. Influenza definition is - an acute, highly contagious, respiratory disease caused by any of three orthomyxoviruses:. 7.  Vaccination is especially important for people at higher risk of serious influenza complications: Individuals with specific chronic medical conditions, pregnant women, and children aged 6-59 months, the elderly and healthcare workers. Global burden of respiratory infections due to seasonal influenza in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Microbiology and laboratory reports; External quality assessments, Influenza virus characterisations. In industrialized countries most deaths associated with influenza occur among people age 65 or older (1). monographs for inactivated egg- derived and inactivated At irregular intervals there are influenza pandemics. Antibodies to one type or subtype of influenza do not necessarily protect against other influenza virus types or subtypes (so called cross protection). Dawood FS1, Fiore A, Kamimoto L, et al. Corticosteroids should not be used routinely, unless indicated for other reasons (eg: asthma and other specific conditions); as it has been associated with prolonged viral clearance, immunosuppression leading to bacterial or fungal superinfection. Seasonal epidemics during those years can be more severe than during the years before the pandemic. Antibodies against these glycoproteins are associated with immunity against influenza. http://www.cdc.gov/EID/content/15/2/233.htm, Oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1) virus, Europe, 2007–08 season, Oseltamivir resistance – disabling our influenza defences. Injected inactivated influenza vaccines are most commonly used throughout the world. When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. All currently circulating influenza viruses are, children aged between 6 months to 5 years, elderly individuals (aged more than 65 years), individuals with chronic medical conditions, Regular hand washing with proper drying of the hands, Good respiratory hygiene – covering mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, using tissues and disposing of them correctly, Early self-isolation of those feeling unwell, feverish and having other symptoms of influenza, Avoiding touching one’s eyes, nose or mouth. BMC Infectious Diseases. Type A and B viruses are the predominant virus types causing disease in humans and are the focus of this factsheet. 2009 Feb 5;14(5). In the northern hemisphere, including Europe, seasonal influenza generally occurs in epidemics between November and April each year, and in the southern hemisphere between June and October. Patients that are not from a high risk group should be managed with symptomatic treatment and are advised, if symptomatic, to stay home in order to minimize the risk of infecting others in the community. Once you are a servant, you may be lucky to be called a master of your craft. 2007;7(1):141. Laboratory confirmation of influenza virus from throat, nasal and nasopharyngeal secretions or tracheal aspirate or washings is commonly performed using direct antigen detection, virus isolation, or detection of influenza-specific RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, exacerbations of underlying disease, e.g. On average an infectious person will infect less than two non-immune people. © European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) 2020, Questions and answers on seasonal influenza, Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial Annals of Internal medicine 2009. However this may not always occur. That is then a pandemic strain (see Edwin D. Kilbourne, 2006; Influenza Pandemics of the 20th and 21st Century). Cohort clinical and microbiological study of young patients infected with seasonal influenza subtypes A/H3N2 (Victoria, Pert strains) and B viruses in Ukraine: pathophysiology reaction of large intestinal cavity microbiota Early estimates of the excess mortality associated with the 2008-9 influenza season in Portugal. In some cases the disease becomes more severe due to the influenza virus infection or a secondary, usually bacterial, infection e.g. Seasonal influenza, a contagious respiratory illness, strikes every year—affecting 5 to 20 percent of the U.S. population annually. However, among the elderly, influenza vaccination may be less effective in preventing illness but reduces severity of disease and incidence of complications and deaths. All age groups can be affected but there are groups that are more at risk than others. The tests performed in laboratories include RT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunoassay, immunofluorescence, and virus culture. 2009;3:37-49, Nair H, Abdullah Brooks W, Katz M et al. Impact of influenza exposure on rates of hospital admissions and physician visits because of respiratory illness among pregnant women. Some of the main underlying reasons for this are: imperfect vaccine effectiveness, influenza cases do not always seek healthcare, and  delayed and rare use of antiviral treatment. Hospitalizations associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States, 1993-2008. In addition, the influenza A and B genome consists of eight separate RNA segments. Influenza A viruses are further divided into subtypes. Due to the high resistance (>99%) adamantanes are no longer recommended. BMJ 2008;336:77-80. Only type A viruses are able to cause pandemics as they have a reservoir in animals. Worldwide, these annual epidemics are estimated to result in about 3 to 5 million cases of severe illness, and about 290 000 to 650 000 respiratory deaths. Herpes zoster: seasonal variations and morphological patterns in Pakistan "Overall in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere (North America and Europe), pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses have been detected only sporadically or at very low levels during the past month," it added. chronic bronchitis);Â, cardiovascular disease (e.g. Nogueira PJ, Nunes B, Machado A, Rodrigues E, Gomez V, Sousa L, et al. Influenza D virus in cattle, France, 2011-2014. Cowling BJ, Fung ROP, Cheng CKY, Fang VJ, Chan KH, et al. (2008) Preliminary Findings of a Randomized Trial of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions to Prevent Influenza Transmission in Households. Influenza season is here; please continue vaccinating through the winter months to prevent flu from spreading further According to CDC, seasonal influenza activity in the United States is high and continues to increase. Nair H, Abdullah Brooks W, Katz M et al. Exercises for Sleep Apnea, Snoring, Sinus Pressure & more. 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